Thursday, July 31, 2014

Various Household Oils

Today we go to the store and simply pick from a huge variety of cooling oils, motor oils and machine oils. Below is some information on how our 19th Century relatives and characters made their own. The information below comes from Mackenzie's Five Thousand Receipts in All the Useful and Domestic Arts ©1846. The spellings come from this original text.

To make oil of sweet almonds. Is usually made from bitter almonds for cheap ness, or from old Jordan almonds by heat, the oil from which soon grows rank, while that from fresh Barbary almonds, drawn cold, will keep good for some lime. The almonds are sometimes blanched by dipping in boiling water or by soaking some hours in cold water, so as to part with their skin easily; but are more usually ground to a paste, which is put into canvas bags, and pressed between iron plates, in a screw press, or by means of a wedge; 1 cwt. of bitter almonds unbianched, produces 46 lbs. of oil; the cake pays for pressing.
Nut oil
Is obtained from the kernel of the hazel nut, and is very fine; it is substituted for oil oi nan; as it will keep better than that of almonds, it has been proposed to be substituted for that oil; it is drank with tea, in China, probably in lieu of cream, and is used by painters, as a superior vehicle for their colours.
Oil of mace
Is obtained from nutmegs by the press; it is buttery, having the smell and colour of mace, but grows paler and harder by age; 2 lbs. of nutmegs in Europe will yield 6 oz. of this oil.
True oil of mace by expression.
This oil is red, remains always liquid, or soft, has a strong smell of mace, sub-acid taste, and is imported in jars or bottles, the lower part being rather thicker than the top; i\ lbs. of mace will yield in Europe an ounce and a half, troy, of oil.
Olive, salad, or sweet oil.
This is the most agreeable of all the oils; it is demulcent, emollient, gently laxative, and is also used as an emetic with warm water; dose, 1 ox. troy, or a large spoonful: also externally, when warm, to the bites of serpents, and when cold, to tumours and dropsies. Rank oil is best for plasters: but fresh oil makes the best hard soap.
Castor oil.
This is either imported from the West Indies, where it is obtained by decoction with water, 10 lbs. of seeds yielding 1 lb. of oil; or frcm the East Indies, where it is obtained by grinding in a mortar, with a hole in the side for the supernatant oil to run off, being in common use there for lamp oil. Or, that made at home by the press, which is the best, especially some that is prepared from cold blanched seeds, with the eye taken out. Some chemists are said to take out the colour from the foreign oils, by certain additions, and sell them for English, or, as it is called, cold drawn castor oil. The virosity communicated to the oil by the eyes of the seeds may be got rid of by washing the oil with boiling water, or with weak oil of vitriol. It is soluble in warm spirit of wine, and its adulteration may thus be discovered, if thought necessary; but as all the fat oils have nearly similar qualities, the taste is sufficient for practical purposes. It is purgative in doses of from 1-2 an oz. to 1 1-2 oz. floated on some distilled water, or on wine; or if it does not usually stay well on the stomach, on some tincture of senna; or made into an emulsion with yolk of egg, and a little distilled water, with 20 drops of lavender, and a tea-spoonful of simple syrup; it may also be used in clysters. It is particularly useful where a stimulant would be hurtful; as it operates quickly without disturbing the system; also externally in swelling pains. Contrary to most medicines, on frequent repetition a less dose is suffitient.
Oil of croton.
This oil is extracted from Molucca grains, or •urging nuts. In its chemical qualities it agrees vith castor oil, but is considerably more active, as i single drop, when the oil is genuine, is a powered cathartic.
Rape oil.
This is made from rape seed; it dries slowly, makes but a softish soap, fit for ointments: themulilageit contains may begot rid of, ina great meamre, by adding half an ounce of oil of vitriol to two pints of the oil.
To purify rape oil. The following is a simple method of rendering •ape oil equal to spermaceti oil, for the purposes af illumination.
Begin by washing the oil with spring water: which is effected by agitating the oil violently with a sixth part of the water. This separates the particles of the oil, and mixes those of the water intimately with them. After this operation, it looks like the yolk of eggs beat up. In less than fortyeight hours they separate completely, the oil swimming at the top, the water, with all feculent and extraneous particles, subsiding to the bottom. This may be very much improved, by substituting seawater in the place of fresh water.
By the process of washing, the oil does not lose
1 hundredth part. The experiment can at all limes be made in a glass decanter, or in a churn, with a cock at the bottom, the water to come up very near to the cock, by which all the oil can be drawn off, after it has deposited its impurities.
Another method.—To 100 parts of oil add 1A or
2 of concentrated sulphuric acid, and mix the whole well by agitation, when the oil will become turbid, and of a blackish-green colour. In about three quarters of an hour, the colouring matter will begin to collect in clots; the agitation should then be discontinued, and clean water, twice the weight of the sulphuric acid, be added. To mix the water with the oil and acid, a further agitation of half an hour will be requisite. The mass may, afterwards, be left to clarify for eight days, at the end of which time three separate fluids will be perceived in the vessel; the upper is the clear oil, the next is the sulphuric acid and water, and the lowest, a black mud or fecula. Let the oil then be separated by a syphon from the acid and water, and filtrated through cotton or wool; it will he nearly without colour, smell, or taste and will burn clearly and quietly to the last drop.
To purify vegetable oil. To 100 pounds of oil, add 25 ounces of roche alum, and mix, dissolved in 9 pounds of boiling water. After stirring it about half an hour, add 15 ounces of nitric ncid, still continuing to stir it. Let it stand forty-eight hours, when the fine oil will awlia on the surface, and then draw it off. Such oil if used all over the continent, and an equal II
quantity yields double the light of whale and fish oil, without its offensive odour.
To make pumpkin oil.
From the seeds of the pumpkin, which are generally thrown away, an abundance of an excellent oil maybe extracted. When peeled, they yield much more oil than an equal quantity of flax. This oil burns well, gives a lively light, lasts longer than other oils, and emits very little smoke. It has been used on the continent for frying fish, &c. The cake remaining after the extraction of the oil may be given to cattle, who eat it with avidity.
Beech nut oil.
Beech nuts are not only an excellent food for pigs, but they are known to yield an oil, fit for common purposes, by the usual methods of extraction. To extract oilfrom grape stontt.
In Italy an useful oil is drawn from the grape stones. In order to separate the seeds from the husks and refuse matter, the mash is put into a bucket with some water, and worked about with the hands, until the seeds, from their superior weight, have fallen to the bottom of the vessel. They are then to be removed and dried in the sun, or by any other wav, as soon as possible; when a sufficient quantity is collected, the whole is to be ground in the same kind of mill that is used for hemp and cole-seed: being then cold drawn, a fine oil is procured, which is scarcely distinguishable from common olive oil. The refuse matter, being scalded in a little hot water, yields a fresh portion of oil, though of an inferior quality, which burnt excellently well in a lamp, giving out no unpleasant odour, and very little smoke. By taking the loppings or primings of the vine, excellent vinegar may he made from the same, and even wine with the aid of sugar.
Hog's lard.
This is obtained like the rest of the animal tats from the raw lard, by chopping it fine, or rather rolling it out to break the cells in which the fat is lodged, and then melting the fat in a water bath, or other gentle heat, and straining it whilb warm; some boil them in water; but the tats, thus obtain ed, are apt to grow rank much sooner than when melted by themselves.
Neat's feet or trotter oil.Neat's Feet Oil definition in Wikipedia.
Obtained by boiling neat's feet, tripe, etc. in water; it is a coarse animal oil, very emollient, and much used to soften leather.
To purify trotter oil. Put 1 quart of trotter oil into a vessel containing a quart of rose-water, and set them over a fire till the oil melts and mixes with the rosewater. Stir well with a spoon. When properly combined, take the vessel from the fire, and let it cool. Now take off the oil with a spoon, and add rose-water, as before. When the oil is again separated and cleansed, set it in a cool place. The principal use of trotter oil is for the making of cold cream, in which its qualities exceed those of every other oil.. -To prepare oil from yolks of eggs. Boil the eggs hard, and after separating the whites break the yolks into two or three pieces, and roast them in a frying pan till the oil begins to exude; then press them with very great force. Fifty eggs yield about 5 ounces of oil. Old eggs yield the greatest quantity.
Anotlier method.—Dilute the raw yolks with a large proportion of water, and add spirit of wine to separate the albumen, when the oil will rise on the top after standing some time, and thus may be separated Ly a funnel.
To refine spermaceti. (A Type of Whale's Oil, Lynn's note)
Spermaceti is usually brought home in casks; and, in some cases, has so little oil mixed with it as to obtain the denomination of head matter. It is of the consistence of a stiff ointment, of a yellowish colour, and not tenacious. Besides the head matter, there is also a quantity of sperm obtained from the oil by filtration. Indeed, in all good spermaceti lamp oil, which is not transparent, particles of the sperm may be seen floating.
Having the head-matter, or filtered sperm, in order to purify it, first put it into hair cloths, and with an iron plate between each cloth, to the number of half a dozen, or more, submit it to the action of an iron screw-press; and, as the oil does not separate very readily, it will, in general, be necessary to let the cakes of sperm be pressed three different times. The third time the cakes will become so dry that they may be broken in small pieces with little trouble, and then put in a furnace containing l-3d water, and 2-3ds cake. Let the fire be raised sufficiently under the furnace to melt the cake, which it will do before the water begins to boil: after which, boil the whole together for about half an hour, taking off, during the boiling, what scum and other extraneous bodies rise to the top; then let the whole be dipped out into a tub, or other coolers. After it is completely cold, take off the cake of spermaceti, which will be on the top of the water, and cut it into pieces. Suppose, for example, that the cake weighs one hundred weight, it will be necessary to have a furnace, or rather a moveable kettle, where the light is thrown in such a way that the process can be observed. Having taken one hundred weight of the unrefined spermaceti, prepared as above, melt it together with about 3 gallons of water. As soon as it begins to boil, add, from time to time, small portions of the following liquor, say half a pint at a time:—Take of the alkaline salt, or pot-ash, 7 pounds. Pour on it 2 gallons of water; let them stand together twenty-four hours, and from the top dip off the ley as wanted, adding more water occasionally till the alkali is exhausted. After boiling the spermaceti for about four hours, having during the process taken off the scum as it arose, let the kettle be removed from the fire, and after remaining about a quarter of an hour, dip off the spermaceti into suitable coolers. This process must, in general, be repeated three times. The third time, if the processes have been properly conducted, the spermaceti will be as clear as cry- al; and then, after it is cool, the only thing necessary to make it fit for sale, is to cut it into moderately small pieces, when it will break into that flakey appearance which it has in the shops.
To sweeten, purify, and rejine Greenland whale and seat oil.
The oil, in its raw state, is filtered through bags, about 41 inches long, with circular mouths, extended by a wooden hoop, about 15 inches in diameter, fixed thereto. These bags are made of jean, lined with flannel; between which jean and flannel powdered charcoal is placed, throughout, to a regularthickness of about half an inch, tor the purpose of retaining the glutinous particles of the oil, and straining it from impurities; and the bags are
3uilted, to prevent the charcoal from becoming licker in one part than another, and to keep the linings more compact. The oil is pumped into a large funnel, made of tin, annexed to the pump through a perpendicular pipe, and passed from the funnel into another pipe placed over the bags horizontally, from whence it is introduced into them by cocks. The oil runs from the filtering hags into a cistern, about 8 feet long by 4 feet broad, and 4| deep, made of wood, and lined with lead, and containing water at the bottom, about the depth of 5 or 6 inches, in which are dissolved about 6 ounces of blue vitriol, for the purpose of drawing down the glutinous and offensive particles of the oil, which have escaped through the charcoal, and thereby rendering it clean and free from the unpleasant smell attendant upon the oil in the raw state; and, in order to enable the oil thus to run from the bags, they are hung in a frame or rack, made like a ladder, with the spokes or rails at sufficient distances to receive the hoop of the bagbetween two; and such frame or rack is placed in a horizontal position over the cistern. The oil is suffered to run into the cistern until it stands to the depth of about 2 feet in the water, and thereto remain for 3 or 4 days, (according to the qualityof the oil), and is then drawn off by a cock, which is fixed in the cistern a little above the water, into a tub or other vessel, when it will be found to be considerably purified and refined, and the oil, after having undergone this operation, may be rendered still more pure, by passing a second or third time through similar bags and cisterns. But the nil, after such second and third process, is drawn off into, and filtered through, additional bags, made of jean, lined with flannel, inclosed in other bags, made of jean, doubled, when the process is complete.
To purify fish oils, and apply the refuse to usefiu purposes.
The object of this invention is the refining not only of fish-oil, but of the oils obtained from all animal substances, and also from expressed vegetables. The mode of performing this is by mixing the oil with an infusion of tannin. Mr Speers, of Dublin, recommends the tannin of oak-bark, but any tannin, whether natural from oak or other barks, or artificial, will answer the purpose. The mode which he prefers is the following: Take equal quantities of oil and soft water; in the water infuse and agitate for a day or two about one-tenth part of its weight of tannin; it is then to be drawn off tine, and the oil and water to be mixed and boiled for some time, and then set by to cool. The tannin will, by means of chemical attraction, unite with the gelatine or mucilage, and, being heavier than oil, will sink below it; but being lighter than water it will swim above it; in other words, this refuse matter-will be found between the oil and the water. The oil is first to be drawn off and then the refuse matter may be obtained. This matter may be"applied to the formation of cements and stucco; or to the composition of paints and varnishes; or to the composition of an excellent blacking for leather, which will by that means be made water-proof.
Another method.
A method of purifying common fish-oil, and rendering it equal to the best sperm oil, by the use of animal charcoal, has lately been discovered in Denmark. The description is very incomplete, but mentions that beef bones, which have been boiled,are made into animal charcoal-in a peculiar way. The charcoal is mixed with the oil, and repeatedly agitated for two months, after which it is filtered through several strata of charcoal, and used as soon as made. The quantity of gas evolved by the bones in the operation is considerable, and is used for lighting the manufactory and adjacent buildings. The residuum is mixed with clay for fuel. The loss in this process is estimated at 15 per cent., and the gain is equal to 40 per cent., leaving a balance in favour of the discovery of 25 per cent.
The peculiar method of making the charcoal, probablv consists in not heating the bones too much. It is well known by the animal charcoal mukers in London, that if the temperature be raised loo high, the charcoal is worth nothing.
Another.—Take a gallon of crude stinking oil, nd mix with it a quarter ol an ounce of powdered * balk, a quarter of an ounce of lime, slaked in the air, ard half a pint of water; stir them together; and when they have stood some hours, add a pint of water, and two ounces of pearl-ashes, and place the mixture over a fire that will just keep it simmering, till the oil appears of a light amber colour, and has lost all smell, except a hot, greasy, soap-like scent. Then superadd half a pint of water in which one ounce 0i salt has been dissolved, and having boiled it half an hour, pour the mixture into a proper vessel, and let it-stand for some days, till the oil and water separate.
If this operation be repeated several times, diminishing each time the quantity of ingredients one half, the oil may be brought to a very light colour, and be rendered equally sweet with the common spermaceti oil.
Oil purified in this manner is found to burn much better, and to answer better the purposes of the woollen manufacture. If an oil be wanted thicker and more unctuous, this may be rendered so by toe addition of tallow or fat
To prepare oils for tlve manufacture of hard soap.
Let the oil be ground in a mill, along with a quantity of fine new-slaked lime, till it becomes of the consistence of thick cream: this being done, let an iron pan be filled one-eighth full of this mixture, to which is to be added an equal quantity of unprepared oil, the whole being well stirred together. A brisk fire is now to be made under the pan, the contents of which will soon swell to the top, and afterwards subside; the fire and stirring must, however, be still kept up, till the mixture begins to swell and boil a second time, emitting thick clouds of steam; another portion of oil is now to be added and stirred briskly in, till this ebullition is suppressed; the lime being now united to the oil, the mass, when cold, will be of the consistence of wax. To make hard soap with the oil thus prepared, let tallow, rosin, grease, or unprepared oil, be added in the proportion of one half, and melted, to which add a ley, made of mineral alkali. When a perfect combination has taken place, by boiling and stirring, let the soap be taken out, and cleansed into frames: from which there will be, as usual, a small discharge of impure ley, after which the soap is ready for use.
Source:Mackenzie's Five Thousand Receipts in All the Useful and Domestic Arts ©1846

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Lightening strikes

I live in Florida and we have been having a lot of summer afternoon storms. We've been hit a couple times this year. That is our house and wires going to our house. All of that to say my cable for internet was hit yesterday and the cable company can't come until Wednesday night. As much as I like my iPad and iPhone tapping out posts for this blog is not with my patience. So I'm sorry there might not be a post for a couple days.

Monday, July 28, 2014

Tarpon Fishing

During the end of the 19th Century fishing for sport. Tarpon fishing started in 1884 after William Hood captured one. Now I'm thinking locals may have caught these fish long before Hood but according to the anglers records that was the beginning. Below are some excerpts regarding this sport.

Points about the Tarpon— The New York Times
The biggest fish that is caught in the waters of this country with rod and bait is, curiously, the first of the angling season to be sought after and to be found in our warmest climate. He is the noble king of herring, the tarpon. The sport of taking tarpon is a comparatively recent one, and it is not many years ago that the man who had caught a tarpon was as big a fellow among the angling fraternity as the tarpon is among fishes. Nowa-days the tarpon anglers are so abundant that reputation depends simply upon the size of the fish taken. There is considerable discussion as to who is entitled to the honor of having landed the biggest tarpon. Florida is a good way distant, and there is ample opportunity for the fish to increase in size as the news works northward. John G. Heckscher is believed to have secured the largest with rod and reel, his fish having been a veritable silver king of 184 pounds and landed after a two hours' struggle, in which Mr. Heckscher became very tired. The tarpon fishing does not start in much before February, though some are taken earlier. February and March are the best months. The fishing-tackle dealers have been improving on the tarpon outfit till this year they offer a very pretty equipment. The old bass rods, it was found, would not do. The tarpon anglers brought them back in the spring in pieces, and three or four were often shattered by one fisherman. The proper tarpon rod is a short one of about seven feet, made in two pieces. The butt is a foot and a half long, of hard rubber and the remaining joint is of noib wood. The tarpon line is specially manufactured of linen, and is made very strong. At first they used a small chain or piano wire for a leader, but it was found that the king herring would snap these very easily and cut through them. So now-a-days they use a sort of cotton material or thick cord. When the tooth of a tarpon strikes it, it mashes and softens and is pulpy, but the fish cannot cut through it. Thick worsted gut, which will become sott in the water, is also sometimes used. This completes the outfit, except a net or gaff for the boatman and a pair of thumbstalls. The tarpon hugs the bottom pretty close, so when the strong steel hook is baited with a piece of mullet it is dropped to the bottom. The fish is a bit wary, and when he suspects the bait is cautious. He is apt to take it up gingerly and travel a few feet. Then he will drop it. He is fond of mullet, however, and if his inspection does not alarm him he will take the food up again and rather slowly swallow it. So it behooves the angler not to hurry the fish. Wait until he has swallowed it and started off on a long run. When the line is tightened on the fish he will be hooked. Some anglers say they can tell by the draw of the fish whether it is a tarpon or a shark, but many are often disappointed to find their supposed tarpon nothing but a measly shark. The sharks are a great nuisance. It is a singular thing that a shark will cut through the cotton leader, while a tarpon cannot, but the chain or piano wire holds a shark fast. It is owing to their different kind of teeth. If a shark is on the line the best plan is to let him work off by himself. The tarpon is a beauty to look upon. The scales are regular and bright in color. When the tarpon is taken out of the water he looks as though he was silver-plated. They have even been taken in nets as far north as Long Island.
Source: Current Opinion ©1889

Tarpon Fishing Methods.—Florida and Texas.
I see from the October and November American AngUs that you have been down to Tarpon (Aransas Pass). I would like to know how the tarpon fishing there compares with the Florida fishing. I mean the manner of fishing for them: is It not done In an entirely different manner in many ways» Is the fi«hing at Tarpon not done in swifter water, no floats used and stronger lines necessary, and is not the best fishing done In rougher water? I think a great many of the Texas tarpon fishermen would like to see your answer In the American Anoler. I have shown the last Nos. 10 and 11 to several from this place, and several have asked me what you thought of the tarpon fishing at the Pass as oompared with the Florida tarpon fishing. Let us hear. Livi Lingo.
Denison, Texas.
There is a marked difference in the methods of tarpon fishing at Aransas Pass from those in vogue in the waters of Florida. We think this arises from the fact that anglers at the former place very naturally fish at the head of the Pass, where the tarpon can be seen gathering in great shoals, awaiting in the strong tide way the immense herds of "shiners" which are apparently helpless in the rapid current and fall a prey easily to the silver kings. At the point referred to, when the tarpon are running (this occurs nearly every day in the week), the fish are so abundant that it is not unusual to have ten to twenty "plucks" during an hour and to hook and beach one or more tarpon in that time. When such a condition exists, an angler must indeed have great self denial to resist fishing in such a spot, albeit, it entails great physical endurance to kill a tarpon in the great rush of water at the head of the Pass. The excitement of hooking, loosing and possible capture of an hundred pounder compensates apparently for the mental and bodily strain. If the tarpon anglers of Aransas Pass would fish about a half mile or slightly more, above the head of the Pass on the edge of the main channel where comparatively still water exists, they would be compelled to resort to the methods used in Florida, viz, still fishing, with the bait lying upon the bottom in five to seven feet of water. We have often hooked tarpon in the locality referred to when anchored and fishing for small fish, hence we believe the tarpon resort to the edge of the channels to feed, in numbers far greater than in any section of Florida we ever visited. We must confess that we prefer the more quiet method of "still fishing " for tarpon. This may easily be accounted for, because our limbs are stiffened (not enfeebled) by the wear and tear of over three-score years, and the taking of a tarpon in the tide way at the head of the Pass puts a heavy strain upon the fisherman, who needs only muscle to beach his fish, as the boatman and the fish, when securely hooked, does all the rest of the work. Mr. Lingo will doubtless infer from the above that tarpon fishing in Florida is done in comparatively smooth water at the edge of channel ways, and that at Aransas Pass it is done in the rough waters of the Pass. The first is still fishing and the latter is trolling, except at times when the boat is anchored and the "shiner" bait is cast out upon the rushing waters. The latter method demands stronger tackle, as the fish are aided in resistance by the swift tide in their favor, hence they fight harder with greater strain on tackle, and the odds for liberty are strongly in their favor.
Source: The American Angler ©1897

It was in 1884 when William H. Wood of New York caught the first tarpon ever captured in Florida waters on hook and line. Before that period they had been occasionally killed with the grains, and one only is on record as being taken accidentally on a large trolling spoon. Mr. Wood, previous to 1884, annually visited the Gulf coast and was a keen observer of the habits of the tarpon, and determined to essay their capture by practical and scientific methods
He observed that the tarpon when hooked seldom failed to throw the hook from its jaw at the moment it leaped from the water, and from this knowledge came the inspiration that insured success in his future outings for these fish. His method was a simple one. Casting about one hundred feet from the boat, he allowed the mullet bait to sink to the bottom, and at once coiled twenty to thirty feet of slack line on the gunnel or seat of the boat. The tarpon bites at a bottom bait rather gingerly, and the first intimation that it is doing so is more of a gentle " draw " than the " pluck " of most salt-water fishes. As the tarpon drew slowly away, Mr. Wood paid out the slack line to its full extent and then struck the hook into the fish. A mad rush, a furious leap, the powerful convulsions of the body and the violent and continued shaking of the head and shoulders, which always follow the strike, were of no avail The bait had been swallowed and the steel was buried in the gullet of the fish.
From 1884 until a few years ago all tarpon anglers in Florida followed Wood's methods, and but few tarpon escaped after being hooked. In 1895 reports came from Aransas Pass, Texas, of the great numbers of tarpon being seen and captured in the rapid waters of the inlet. The method used was the reverse of that introduced by Mr. Wood. It was surface fishing with a hundred feet of line tightened on the strong tide, which flows on the ebb at a speed of eight to ten miles an hour in the Pass. The boat was either anchored or slowly rowed against the tide. Under such conditions it was seldom that more than one fish out of ten was killed The tarpon dashed at the floating line, and the hook failed to be embedded except in the outer jaw, and at the first mad leap of the fish was thrown from the mouth. During the last few years the anglers of Florida have discarded Mr. Wood's method, and now, as a rule, fish in swift waters of the inlets with the same results as obtains in Texan waters. It cannot be disputed that still-fishing for tarpon, as introduced by Mr. Wood, is the most scientific and enjoyable from an angling standpoint.
Source: Outing: Sport, Adventure, Travel, Fiction ©1899

Saturday, July 26, 2014

This Past Week on 19th Century Historical Tidbits

This past week we started with some additional information about the Turpentine and Tar Business.

On Tuesday we explored the Switchboard Operator's Job in the late 19th Century.
Switchboard Operator

On Historical Fashion Wednesday we covered Fashions from 1877
1877 Fashions

On Thursday we learned a bit about the Salads and Dressings from the 19th Century
Salad Anyone

On Friday we drifted over to the Florida Keys and an 1859 report to U.S. House of Representatives
The Florida Keys

Friday, July 25, 2014

The Florida Keys

Below are two reports to the U.S. House of Representatives about the Florida Keys. They describe each Key and what they found on them. For those of you who enjoy the keys. It is an opportunity to see what they looked like before they were as settled as they are now.

SIR: In compliance with your instructions of November 19, 1856, I proceeded to Key West, but I was unable to engage a pilot to accompany me to Cape Sable, such was the general terror of Indians.
I therefore lost no time in commencing a sheet among the Keys about 25 miles to the northward and eastward of Key West. I reached the scene of active operations about the 20th of January, 1857.
Burnt key, which was the first in order of survey, is upwards of a mile and a half in length, but quite narrow. The land is slightly elevated, and sustains a growth of large trees, principally button wood with scarcely any mangrove. South of these are two small keys, not wooded, and nearly covered at high water.
Directly west of Burnt key, and scarcely half'a mile distant, is Knock-em-down key, which is three miles in length and averages nearly a mile in breadth. Comparatively a small portion of it is beyond the reach of ordinary high water, and it is very much out up by lagoons and creeks. But a small portion of the Key is wooded.
Budd key, the next to the northwest, is about a mile in length, but narrow. lt is separated into three distinct parts by narrow channels, one of which is quite deep, even at low water.
Beyond this to the northwest, are some half a dozen small Mangrove keys, or shoals, only one of which, Michael’s key, is judged worthy ofa name, and that is but little more than a quarter oi'a mile in length.
A mile to the northward, however, brings us to Raccoon key, which is one and a half miles long, and from a quarter to halfa mile in width. The woods occupy but a small portion of the surface. They are principally of buttonwood and mangrove. Northwest of this are three small Mangrove keys, the largest of which, Eagle key, covers an area of nearly a. quarter of a square mile.
Parts of the Torch and Howes keys also come on my sheet. The former group with its numerous shoals, and small grassy keys, intersected by numerous channels, most of them dry or nearly so at low water, covers an area of about four square miles. Torch key proper is, in some places, a mile wide, and is to a great extent overgrown with buttonwood, sea-grape, torch, a few palmetto, and many other species of trees.
East of this are three small keys, from three to five hundred metres in length, each densely covered with mangrove.
Due north of Torch, and separated from it by a channel only onefourth of a mile wide, are a group called Water keys. These stretch in a northerly direction about three miles, and are all connected by flats at low water, at which time they form one continuous chain. But long before the tide reaches its full height, they are separated into nearly a dozen, most of them very small. The most southerly, and the only one of any size, is long and narrow, being more than half the length ofthe whole chain, and supports a ridge of large high trees.
The western half of Howes key lies to the southeast of Water key, distant three-fourths of a mile, and the portion on my sheet covers an area of nearly two square miles. The northwest part is low and intersected by lagoons, and the woods are thin.
To the north and west of Water key are the Eastern and Western Contents. These groups stretch in a. northeast direction for about three miles, and vary in breadth from a half to three-quarters of a mile. They are intersected by numerous deep passages, mostly narrow, except the one between the two groups, which is over half a. mile wide, and at the mouth of which there is a break in the reef which stretches along outside of these keys for a. considerable distance.
Lastly comes Harbor key, situated about :one and a. quarter mile east northeast of the Contents. This is a. small and nearly round key, scarcely two hundred metres in diameter, but the land is high and the woods dense. It can be seen and readily distinguished at a considerable distance, and derives some importance from being a. prominent land mark for vessels cruising in the bay.
There is a narrow strip of coral reef north of the eastern Content group, a little more than one-fourth of a. mile distant, which is bare at low water. Between it and the shore the water is shallow, but the outer edge falls precipitately to a depth of one and a half fathoms.
The space included between the Contents, Water, Torch, and Raccoon keys, an area of six square miles, is one extensive fiat, not quite dry at low water, except in a. few scattered places, yet impassable for boats even of the smallest draught.
The accompanying map of this locality contains eighty-nine quarter section stakes, labelled, respectively, M, P. and M, P.
After completing the sheet just mentioned, I succeeded in obtaining a pilot for Cape Sable, where I commenced about the middle of March, and worked as far from the base line as was practicable previous to triangulation.
Cape Sable, from what I could learn, is probably an island, formed by Shark river leading up to White Water bay, a large inland lake; and this also has another towards the east, which empties somewhere into Barnes’ sound.
From Cape Sable proper, or as it is sometimes called the Eastern Cape, to Palm Point, there is a fine sand beach, with a ridge about three feet in height, running along just back of high water mark. This gradually falls away towards the woods, which are in most places upwards of a hundred yards from the shore, but in some places run in close to the beach.
At Palm Point there is a large open space of firm ground, or fine rolling prairie, some six feet above the level of the sea. It has recently been selected as the site for a small military station, Fort Cross.
The most prominent objects in this vicinity are two tall palm trees, the largest being upwards of one hundred feet in height. They are quite useful as land marks.
Just beyond the prairie at Palm Point, proceeding in a northwest direction, the woods again approach to the water’s edge and continue to skirt the shore for some two miles, where they begin gradually to recede; and there is a fine high sand beach reaching to the Northwest Cape. Here again there is a high undulating prairie. Beyond that the woods grow close to the water's edge, and to the westward of this point there is no clear land for several miles more; in fact, except here and there a very small prairie on some of the innumerable scattered islands formed by the mouths of the various rivers between here and Cape Romano.
For the shore line from Palm Point to the Northwest Cape, I was obliged to use a separate sheet.
From Fort Poinsett, eastward, there is a high sand beach, as far as a point which makes out abreast the east end of the base line. The walking would be good were it not for the dead mangroves which have decayed and fallen into the water. At the foot of the sand ridge the soft gray mud commences and stretches out with scarcely a perceptible variation in the depth of the water for some distance, say two hundred yards, and from these shoals very gradually out to the channel, about three-fourths of a mile, where there is from seven to ten {{eet of water. This channel extends perhaps a mile beyond the Oyster
To the eastward of that the whole country is one extensive flat, dry at low water for miles. After a strong northerly wind has prevailed for a day or two this becomes perfectly bare to a distance of two or three miles from the main, and remains so until a change of wind.
The surface is covered entirely by soft grey mud, into which a pedestrian must sink more than two feet at every step.
Beyond the point above mentioned the mangroves grow to the water’s edge, and, in fact, from the shore line.
This growth continues to the “ upper crossing,” opposite the Orster keys, the eastern boundary of my sheet. Here there is a narrbw opening, perhaps twenty yards wide, where the prairie comes down to the water’s edge. Beyond that the mangrove appears again, and is absolutely impenetrable.
There is a narrow slip of fast land between the beach and the base line. There the “ glades ” commence, a marsh dotted with hammocks. These latter are mostly quite narrow, although some stretch to a considerable length.
To the northwest of the second mile stone of the base line, there is a solid growth of black mangrove reaching to Fort Poinsett. In it are several ponds, mostly small, although the largest is three-fourths of a mile in length. These are all connected together by trails run by the alligators in their migrations from one pond to the other; and to White \Vater lake, which commences about a mile and a half northwest of the west base, and stretches in a northwest direction between four and five miles to just beyond Palm Point, it averages threequarters of a mile in width. The water is salt, and the ebb and flow though slight is plainly perceptible. The bottom is composed of very soft and unusually sticky black mud. The lake is completely enclosed by the woods, except portions of the eastern shore which border on the prairie. While I was there the water was very shallow, as was the case with all the ponds, a number of them even being entirely dry. The greatest depth of water did not exceed six inches. But when the glades are full during the rainy season, the water rises to a height of over six feet.
My sheet of this vicinity also embraces Sandy key. This is a narrow strip of land, in shape, resembling the two legs of a right angled triangle, and is only remarkable for the countless flocks of sea birds which frequent it.
The last sheet referred to is marked by fifty-two quarter section stakes, labelled respectively, M: P: and M, P., mostly the latter.
After completing all that I judged it prudent to attempt previous to triangulation, towards the latter part of April I proceeded to the Vacas keys. Having obtained points of Lieutenant Clark, furnished from his work of this season, I commenced upon Key Vacas, joining Assistant Adams’ work of a previous season, and worked in an easterly direction.
Key Vacas is about five and a half miles in length, and varies in width from a quarter to half a mile. It is mostly wooded, though parts of it are cleared, and towards the eastern extremity there is a small settlement of about a dozen houses.
An extensive shoal makes out from the southern shore for a mile or upwards, scattered portions of which are dry at low water.
A number of very small keys and rocks lie at short distances from the northern shore of Key Vacas, only one of which, Rachel’s key, has been named.
That part of Boot key which my sheet embraces is nearly two miles long but very narrow. The eastern portion is high firm ground, but the middle of the key is entirely out up by lagoons and deep channels.
The Stirrup keys are three in number and lie to the northward of Key Vacas. The largest, on which the station is situated, is three
fourths of a mile long, and in the widest place measures about a quarter of a mile.
Fat Deer key lies to the eastward of Key Vacas, from which it is separated by a narrow but quite deep channel called Jacob’s Harbor Passage.
This key is much out up by numerous channels, most of them deep, and is moreover divided throughout its entire length by a large lagoon.
The whole length of that portion of the group which is contained on my sheet is about two miles, and it averages about a quarter of a mile in width.
Bamboo key lies to the northward of the preceding. It is scarcely a quarter of a mile long by about one hundred metres in width. This sheet is marked by sixty-seven quarter section stakes, labelled respectively M: P: and M, P. It was completed on the 16th of May, at which date I discontinued operations in section VI.
The total amount of work done by my party was: Shore line 210§ miles; wood and marsh lines 69 miles, within a total area of seventythree square miles.
Yours very respectfully,

United States Coast Survey. A. D. Bacns, L. L. D.,
Superintendent United States Coast Survey.
Wasnmeron CITY, D. 0., June 16, 1857.
Sm: In pursuance of your instructions I repaired to Key \Vest in November. Owing to repairs of my vessel, the United States schooner Agassiz, and the death of my assistant, Mr. S. J. Hough, the commencement of my work was delayed until the 3d of January.
The operations of my party this year embraced the topography and marking of the following named Florida keys, viz: Big Torch, Little Torch, Big Pine, No Name, Howes, Newfound Harbor, Pye’s, Annette, Little Spanish, Big Spanish, Flat, Grassy, Johnson’s, East and West Bahia Honda, and several smaller keys in their vicinity.
Ramrod key is one and a half miles in length by one and a quarter miles in breadth. The outer shore is of coral rock. The key is covered with heavy mangrove, palmetto, sea-grape, and buttonwood. On the southeastern end is a lagoon three and a quarter miles long by a quarter mile wide. The depth of water in this lagoon is from five to fifteen inches. This key was marked by fourteen painted posts in parallel meridian, and also in quarter sections. The rocky portion of the key was marked by iron stakes two and a half feet long, driven into the rock four inches. These were marked with a cold chisel on one side, the letters M, MP, or P being painted on another side. On other parts of the key yellow pine posts, four feet long, were driven into the ground one and a half feet and protected by coral rocks piled around them. The posts were marked on one side with the letters U. S. C. S., and on the other side M, MP or P, with black paint.
Big Torch key, which lies next to Ramrod, is irregular in shape, and is divided into three separate keys by a channel one mile in length by one hundred and sixty-four yards wide, with a depth varying from six inches to three feet. The shore of Torch is rocky on the eastern and western sides. The northern and southern being extensive mud plats covered by the sea at high tide. This key is a formation of coral rock covered with a thin crust of marl about one inch in depth, and is thickly wooded with black mangrove, palmetto, sea-grape, and buttonwood. The key was marked by thirty posts of iron and yellow pine, designated as those on Ramrod key.
Little Torch key is separated from Big Torch by a channel two and a quarter miles in length by a quarter mile in breadth, with a depth of three feet. This key is three miles in length and a half mile in breadth. The soil and wood are like those of Big Torch key. Little Torch was marked by fif'teen posts of iron and yellow pine, similar to the section marks of Big Torch key.
Big Pine key, due east of Big and Little Torch, is of irregular shape. It is nine miles in length by three miles in breadth, comprises an area of thirteen square miles, and is covered with a heavy growth of yellow pine trees, varying in height from twenty-five to sixty feet. The eastern shore, extending from Big Pine station, is nearly opposite No Name station, is a white sandy beach, the remainder being of coral rock, with mud flats here and there. This key, as others, is covered with small rocks and with soil in some places from one to two inches in depth. The only feature claiming attention is the pine timber, the northern end being thickly wooded with mangrove and buttonwood. There is on the northwestern side a small lagoon, which is nearly dry at low water. This key was marked by fifty-five posts, yellow pine, with the letters U. S. G. S. on one side, and M, M P, or P on the other, with black paint.
No Name key, which lies due east of Big Pine, is three miles in length, and one and a half miles in breadth. This key is covered with a heavy growth of mangrove and palmetto. A grove of yellow pine trees, about a quarter mile square, extends into the middle of the key. The soil on No Name is similar in character to that of Big Pine key. No Name key was marked by seventeen posts of yellow pine, distinguished as those placed on Big Pine key.
Newfound harbor is a group of three small keys. The largest is of irregular shape, and is one and a quarter miles in length by a quarter mile in breadth in the middle, tapering at each end to two hundred and eighteen yards in breadth. Another is about two hundred and seventy-three yards in length by one hundred and sixty yards in breadth. The third, which nearly joins to Big Pine key, is about a half mile in length by one hundred and sixty-four yards in breadth. These keys are covered with mangrove and buttonwood, and were marked by five posts. There is a fine harbor on the inside of the keys for vessels drawing from four to ten feet. _
Little Pine key lies due north of Big Pine and No Name keys, 18 three miles in length by seven-eighths of a mile in breadth in the centre, the eastern and western ends being about two hundred and eighteen yards wide. This, like Big Pine key, is mostly covered with yellow pine trees, varying in height from twenty-five to fifty feet; the eastern and western ends are thickly covered with black mangrove and buttonwood. The soil is similar to that of Big Pine key. On this key fourteen posts of yellow pine were planted, and marked as those on the key last mentioned.
Pye’s Harbor key is a small mangrove key, and lies between Loggerhead and Newfound harbor. It is surrounded by extensive mud flats, covered with water at the lowest tides.
Annette key, due north of Big Pine, is one and a quarter miles in length by a half mile in breadth. The surface is covered with thick mangrove and buttonwood, and is marked by ten posts of yellow pine. There is a low fiat key adjoining, which is entirely covered by the sea at high tide, and is surrounded by extensive mud flats, bare at low water.
Big Spanish key is the most northwardly, covered with thick mangrove, and entirely overflowed at the lowest tides.
Little Spanish key, east of Big S anish, is about three-quarters of a mile in length by one-quarter o a mile in breadth. This key is also overgrown with mangrove, with extensive mud flats inside. The northern part of the key is nearly covered with water at high tide. This key was marked with two yellow pine posts.
Crawl key, northeast of Annette key, is very small, and covered with mangrove.
Howe’s key, which lies northwest of Big Pine, is thickly covered with black mangrove and buttonwood. The southeastern end is much cut up with lagoons, varying in depth from six to twenty inches, but nearly dry at low tide. This key was marked by fifteen posts of iron and yellow pine, and designated as others already described.
Mayo’s key, east of Annette key, is one mile in length by two hundred and seventy-three yards at the widest part. This key, like the others, is thickly overgrown with black mangrove, sea-grape, and buttonwood, and was marked by four yellow pine posts.
Johnson’s keys, three in number, lie due north of Little Pine key. Key No. 1 is seven-eighths of a mile in length by a quarter mile in breadth. Key No. 2 is about one mile in length by a half mile in breadth. Key No. 3 is six hundred and fifty-six yards in length, and one hundred yards in breadth. These keys are likewise covered with black mangrove, sea-grape, and a small quantity of buttonwood. The area was divided by eleven posts of yellow pine, and marked as those on other keys.
Flat key, northeast of Johnson’s keys, is one mile in length by a half mile in breadth, and is covered by the .sea at high tide. It is thickly overspread with mangrove and buttonwood. This key was marked with three yellow pine posts.
West Bahia Honda, one mile from Flat key, is a half mile in length by one-eighth of a mile in breadth. It is covered by the sea at high tide.
East Bahia Honda, two and a half miles east of Bahia Honda, is about one-half mile in length by one-third of a mile in breadth. This key is also thickly covered with heavy mangroves.
My season‘s work of four months covers an area of thirty-one square miles, and includes one hundred and ninety miles of shoreline. Mr. G. U. Mayo assisted me in the work part of the season, for which great credit is due him. The topography is comprised in three sheets, which will be deposited in the archives when inked. Operations were discontinued on the 3d of May. 18Téie schooner Agassiz was laid up in Baltimore, Md., on June 3,
5 .
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
C. T. IARDELLA, Sub-Assistant United States Coast Survey. Prof. A. D. Bacnn, Superintendent United States Coast Survey.
INDIAN KEY, May 4, 1857.
DEAR SIR: I have to report that,°in obedience to your instructions of November, I proceeded to Key Largo, Florida, on the 16th of January.
After putting down eighty section posts there for the land office, the Indian hostilities having increased, it was deemed imprudent to expose the party, which was without any means of defence. I proceeded to Point Charles, and continued the plane table work on the outside of Key Largo, and have completed all the key and the creeks as far as it was possible to go from the seaside, also the outside shoreline of Upper and Lower Matecumbe, which extends about four miles below Indian key.
I have surveyed about one hundred and twenty miles of coast and banks, and about five or six of interior, and put down eighty section posts. Most of the outside shore of Key Largo and all the keys are of coral rock, soft enough in places to force the posts down. Where this was impossible, I used iron stakes flattened at the top and marked with a chisel U. S. C. S. on one side, and M. or P. or M. P., as the case required, on the other. The wooden posts were marked with the same character in paint.
The soil on Key Largo from Point Charles, where my season’s work commenced, is superior to that of most of the other keys. This key, Upper and Lower Matecumbe, and Lignum-vitte, being the most fertile of any of the large keys. The growth on them is large and very prolific ; they are covered for some distance back from the water with a low growth of small trees and bushes, where the land is comparatively high, caused by the water making its deposit there, going towards the interior. The trees are large, but the ground swampy from the creeks, which pass through the higher land in small streams, and spread themselves over the key in numerous branches and ponds. The two Matecumbe keys are much more free of these than Key Largo. The upper one has one spring upon it and the lower five.
Key Rodrigues is overflowed at high tide, and Tavernier has some fast land on it, only on the northern end, which would probably be
overflowed at very high tide. The two small keys, Dove and Tea Table, have a very good soil on them, deep enough for almost any growth. If properly drained, they would be very profitable, having the best soil I have seen in Florida. Very respectfully, S. A. WAINWRIGHT. Prof. A. D. BACHE, Srfoerintende'nt U. S. Coast Survey.

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Salad Anyone

We eat a lot of salad in my house and now that it is summer we seem to eat even more. Below is an excerpt from "Salad and Salad Making" ©1884. There are a ton or recipes from the book but I especially enjoy the opening information. I've included the breakdown of the various types of salad dressings as well. Enjoy!

Salad has a different significance to-day from what it once had. The original, contracted definition of the word has broadened and expanded, with the advance of modern ideas, until salads are no longer restricted to "uncooked herbs dressed with salt, vinegar or spices," but include a wide range of fruits, vegetables, fish and meats, prepared and dressed in a great variety of ways—in fact, nesry everything used as food may be brought into requisition in making salads.
Bat all varieties of salads are included in five classes, viz:
1. —Fruit Salads.
2. —Vegetable Salads.
3—Fish Salads.
4. —Meat Salads.
5. —Mixed Salads.
To one or the other of these classes every imaginable kind and style of salad belongs, and all binds and styles are governed by the same general principles that underlie the art of salad making.
Each class of salads may, however, be appropriately divided into two kinds—simple and compound salads.
A Simple Salad contains only a single sort of frnit, vegetable, fish or meat.
A Compound Saxad contains two or more sorts of fruit, vegetables, fish or meat.
As a salad may consist only of one sort of fruit, vegetables, etc., so a dressing may be simply a sprinkle of salt or sugar, or a few drops of oil or vinegar. But as there are elaborate salads of various kinds, so there are elaborate dressings, capable of almost endless changes and modifications.
There are, nevertheless, but four distinct classes of salad dressing, viz:
1. —Transparent Dressing.
2. —French Dressing.
3. —Cream Dressing.
4. —Mayonnaise Dressing.
To excel in salad making, as in every other branch of cookery, a close analytical study of the subject is necessary; but the best success is attainable only by a strict observance of three very important rules, viz:—
1. —The ingredients composing the salad and dressing must be suitably chosen.
2. —They must be introduced into the mixture in a certain, specific order.
3. —The method of mixing must be suited to the nature of the ingredients.
A dressing, whether of salt, sugar, vinegar, or a combination of many things, should not be the prominent or main feature of a salad. It should be only a dressing—an adjunct, to tone down and soften too sharp an acid, or too pungent a flavor; or to render finer and more distinctive, some peculiar individuality of the fruits, vegetables, etc., composing the salad. This is the true mission of the dressing. And a salad dressing, scientifically prepared, brings out and develops the native characteristics of the various materials used, and crowns with perfectness the harmoniously compounded salad.
Class 1.
Transparent Salad Dressing.
A transparent dressing may be simply a clear syrup made of sugar and water; or, it may be a mixture of fruit juice and sugar. Or, it may be water in which herbs, vegetables, fish or meats have been cooked. It may be a sweet dressing, in which many fruit flavors and spices are mingled; or, it may be acid with vinegar or lemon, or pungent with mustard and other condiments. It may be thin as vinegar—thick as syrup or honey—or stiff as jelly. It may be colorless; or, it may be of any color, shade or tint that suits the fancy. Its only imperative requirement is, a transparent clearness. A good illustration of a transparent dressing, suitable for a fruit salad composed of bananas, pears, or any sweet fruit, is—
To the juice of three oranges and one lemon, which should make a half pint, add four ounces of sugar, one gill of sherry wine, and the white and shell of one egg. Beat all together. Heat to boiling point. Simmer live minutes. Strain. The wine may be omitted from this dressing, if desired. And, if liked, a small portion of the grated peel of both orange and lemon can be added.
Is made by adding to the mixture before heating it, half an ounce of gelatine soaked an hour in a gill of cold water.
Thicken a pint of stewed, strained tomato, with a tablespoonfnl of arrow root mixed with cold water. Boil two minutes. Add an ounce of butter, half a teaspoonful of sugar, the same of salt, and a little pepper. This is very nice, either hot or cold, with any kind of meat salad.
To one quart of boiling water slightly salted, or the same quantity of fish, chicken, or veal broth, add one medium sized carrot, one onion, half a bay leaf, a root of celery, ten cloves, twenty allspice, thirty pepper corns, and half a teaspoonful of white mustard seed. Simmer an hour, strain and let cool. To each pint of the liquor add a pint of vinegar, an ounce of gelatine soaked in cold water, and the white and shell of an egg. Heat to boiling point, simmer five minutes and strain.
, Class 2.
French Dressing.
To four teaspoonfuls of vinegaradd half a teaspoonful of salt and one eighth of a teaspoonful of pepper; mix, and pour over salad, then add olive oil to taste.
To half a teaspoonful of made mustard, add olive oil slowly, stirring constantly. When thick, add vinegar in like manner. And thus alternate until the requisite proportions of oil and vinegar have been added. By observing this method of mixing, a large bottle of oil can be made into a perfectly smooth dressing—with only the half teaspoonful of made mustard as a base—by the addition of a few drops of vinegar from time to time, as required to thin the mixture. Add salt and pepper to taste. The usual quantities are a teaspoonful and a half of salt, and one fifth as much pepper, to each pint of oil.
Class 3.
Cream Dressing.
To one pint of boiling cream, add two ounces of flour stirred to a smooth paste with two ounces of butter. Cook two minutes. Remove from the saucepan, and add one ounce of butter, stirring until cool and perfectly mixed, then season to taste with lemon juice, vinegar, salt, pepper, mustard, capers, minced onion, parsley, chopped pickle, etc.
To one cup of sour cream add a fourth of a cup of vinegar or lemon juice. Season to taste withsalt and cayenne pepper. Use on vegetable or fish salad.
Cook together, two minutes, an ounce of flour and an ounce of butter, add a pint of sweet cream and season to taste with salt and pepper. Use on boiled cabbage, cauliflower, potatoes, turnips, carrots, parsnips, beets or any vegetables.
This dressing may be varied by adding whites or yolks of eggs, minced onions, parsley, pickles, capers, vinegar or lemon juice; and may boused warm or cold according to taste.
Heat together to boiling point in a stew pan a gill of vinegar and an ounce of butter. Stir in an egg well beaten, and add a gill of sweet cream. Season to taste.
Another hot slaw dressing may be made in this manner: Mix together a gill of water and a gill of vinegar. Thicken with half an ounce of flour. Cook two minutes, add an ounce of butter and season to taste.
Class 4.
Mayonnaise Dressing.
This is the most popular salad dressing in use, and is made in this manner: With a small wooden spoon stir the yolk of an uncooked egg in anearthen bowl, one minute. Then, continuing the stirring in the same direction all the time add olive oil drop by drop, until the mixture becomes thick and waxy. Thin by stirring in vinegar and lemon juice, in small quantities. Add oil as before; and so alternate the oil and vinegar until the required amount of dressing is made. Season with salt, pepper, mustard, chopped olives, capers, pickles, onions, celery, parsley, cresses or whatever is desired, according to taste, and the requirements of the salad with which the dressing is to be used. By simply observing care in regard to adding oil and vinegar slowly in small quantities, a large bottle can be made into dressing, and only one egg yolk be used as a base. Butter may always be substituted for olive oil when desired, and can be used in a Mayonnaise by stirring to a cream, and gradually adding a well beaten egg. The white of an egg beaten stiff may be added to any cream or Mayonnaise dressing just before it is used. In rich oil dressings sherry wine is frequently used in equal proportions with vinegar.
Mix in a two-quart bowl—to allow room for beating—one even teaspoonful of mustard, one teaspoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful and a half of vinegar. Add the yolk of an egg, beat all well together, then add gradually half a pint of olive oil. The oil should be poured in a fine tliread-like stream, and the mixture all the while be beaten rapidly. More vinegar or lemon juice may be used if required to make it the proper consistency.
Add the well beaten yolks of five eggs to five tablespoonfnls of boiling vinegar. Cook in an earthen bowl, set in a pan of boiling water, until stiff—being careful to stir clean from the sides of the bowl while cooking. Remove from the fire, add four ounces of butter, and stir until cool and perfectly mixed. When quite cold season to taste with 6alt, pepper, mustard, etc., and thin with sweet cream to the required consistency. Oil, if preferred, may be used in place of cream. If the mixture when cooked is not perfectly smooth, it should be rubbed through a hair sieve. This is an excellent and convenient salad dressing; and when properly cooked will keep, without deterioration, for several days.
The hard boiled yolks of eggs were formerly much used, and are by some people still preferred for making salad dressing. Perhaps the best recipe, when they are used, is the one popularized by being reduced to rhyme by the talented and witty English clergyman after whom it was named.
Two boiled potatoes passed through kitchen sieve,

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

1877 Fashions

Below are some 1883 images of various fashions taken from periodicals at that time.


Walking Suit Girl

Walking Dress
Walking Dress Front & Back

Walking Dresses & Jackets


Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Switchboard Operator

Please note there are two kinds (perhaps more) of switchboard operators. The first worked for the railroad, the second, the one I'm addressing below worked for the telephone service. During the early years of the phone service, there were a lot of legal battles going on about patent problems and such. Something to note for added tension in your historical characters at the time.

Here are some tidbits about a switchboard operator and what their job entailed:

Vhen the capacity of a telephone-exchange system rises above several hundred subscribers the need is felt for labor-saving appliances, chiefly in the work that must be performed by the switchboard operator. This may be divided into several operations, namely, answering calls. calling subscribers, interconnecting subscribers, supervising such interconnections and dissolving the interconnections. However, the limited scope of this article covers only such apparatus as is required for the second or calling operation.
As a rule, the switchboard operator is apprised of a subscriber's desire for a communication by the falling of an annunciator shutter or lighting of a lamp. The signal is then responded to by the operator, either by inserting a plug, pressing a button or other means that may have been provided in the switchboard equipment. Upon learning the subscriber’s needs the operator’s next duty is to learn whether the desired correspondent’s line is free for allowing his signal-receiving apparatus to be sounded. If. on testing or by observation, it is found that the called~for subscriber's line is not already in use the operator’s next duty will be to project a signaling current over the circuit. This brings us to the operation which it is the purpose of this article to describe.
The signaling current for sending out over the line may be (as is the case in the smaller exchange systems) generated by the switchboard operator, while driving an electric generator; however, this operation consumes so much of the switchboard operator's time that it soon becomes a burdensome duty for the operator. In the smaller exchange systems the hand-driven magneto-generator can be em— ployed with good results; in the larger systems, however, where the time consumed while interconnecting the subscribers must necessarily be less, the necessity arises for providing some other means for ringing the subscribers‘ telephone bells; in other words, the electric generator must be driven by some external source of power, such as an electric, gas, water or oil motor. Whichever type of driving engine may be employed, it is essential that its speed should be fairly constant; moreover, its power should be such that even with three or four operators ringing out at the same time its speed shall not be seriously affected. Another important feature provided should be that its internal resistance should be comparatively low, depending, of course, somewhat on the size of the generator armature and field magnets.
Source: Wester Electrician ©1899

In connecting a party line. with a switchboard a great deal of trouble is often caused by the use of an improperly wound annunciator coil. It should be borne in mind that the drop magnet really bears the same relation to the line as the ringer magnets, in the various telephones, and should therefore be connected in the same way. For a series party line the switchboard drop should be wound to about the same resistance as the ringer magnets. If the resistance is made higher, as is often done in' the attempt to secure a more sensitive drop, the parties on the line will have much difficulty in talking to each other, because the drop is in series in the line; but if that line is connected with some other line, through the switchboard, this trouble will not exist, as the circuits should be so arranged as to cut out the drop upon the insertion of the plug.
Source: Electrical Engineering ©1898

Monday, July 21, 2014

The turpentine and tar business.

One of my most visited posts is on the making of turpentine. So I thought I'd add a few more tidbits about this industry.

The turpentine and tar business.
The making of turpentine and tar is the almost sole business of the thinly settled population of the pine lands. They are generally poor and indolent; yet this business allords good profits even at the present low prices, and enormous profits were made when naval stores were tuore than double their present prices. Turpentine now sells at 81.80 the barrel at Wilmington, and it has sold for upwards of $4. Mr. Lazarus told me that he had paid to a poor white man, who worked singly and unassisted in making turpentine, 81000 lbr the fruits of his labor of one year. It is understood that a good hand can attend to 9000 trees, and can secure 200 barrels of turpentine in a year.

In commencing the operation on trees untouched, a receptacle (or “box”) is cut by the axe on one side of the tree, and about six inches above the ground, which is large enough to hold a quart of the fluid turpentine which exudes from the cut sap-wood, and which flows into this hollow from the upper part and sides. The flowing of the sap begins of course in the spring. At the end of a few days, (according to the time and state of the season,) the laborer visits all his trees, collects turpentine and puts it in barrels. He then cuts from each side of the tree a shallow groove, inclining downward to the box, through the bark and a little into the wood. Into these new cuts the turpentine exudes, and flows down them into the box. The tool by which this operation is performed is called a “shave.” It is a circular piece of iron like the eye of a weeding hoe, with the lower edge sharp, and which is attached to a shaft or handle, so as to cut its groove like a gouge, but by being pulled to, instead ol'being pushed from. the operator.

Every time the box is emptied of its turpentine, the “shaving” is extended upward, and thus gradually making the tree bare of bark and ofthe outer surface of the sap-wood as high sscan be conveniently reached, or 15 feet and upwards.' This shaving rises about two feet in a year, and thus it takes about seven years to finish one side of a tree. The side edges of the bored surface are carefully kept perpendicular and straight, and not quite to embrace the balt'ofthe trunk of the tree. Next, the opposite side is “boxed,” and treated in the same way, taking care to leave a strip of an inch or two of bark on each side between the old and the newer work. Without other cause ol'decay or destruction. the trees will live and yield well until the sides or, be shaved no higher. But the spreading ot'accidental fires selgom fails to kill the tree earlier. For the entire face of the cutting being encrusted with turpentine, and the wood below being converted to solid lightwood, no trees can be more inflammable ; and the fire burns so deeply in, as to kill the strips of living bark by heat, or to weaken the trunk so much that it yields to, and is prostrated by, the next storm. The trees, or parts that escape being burnt, are finally cut up into billets, and the tar extracted from them, by burning them slowly in a close kiln, made by covering the lightwood with earth in the mode well known in every pine country.

It is only the turpentine that retains its fluidity, and is collected in the box, that is considered firstrate. The part that sticks to and hardens above has lost its most valuable part, the oil or spirits of turpentine,) by evaporation, an when scraped off, which is the last part ofthe process, is sold at half the price of the fluid turpentine. Of course the expense of land-carriage is a suificient bar to the production of so heavy and low-priced products, where the distance is considerable.

The turpentine getters are careful every spring to rake away the leaves from the foot of every tree, and to burn the collected trash when it can be done slowly and stately. But they cannot always command the progress of the fires; and from that, or other less carelhlly made fires, great havock is olien mode among the boxed trees.

Where vicinity to market, or cheapness of carriage, permits this business to be in full operation, it cannot last long, as the long leaf pines will be destroyed and will not be renewed. The other kinds of pines are not worth working for this purpose.
Source: The Farmers' Register ©1840

Friday, July 18, 2014

What an Employer is looking for...

Yesterday I tackled some information on the filing systems used during the 19th century. Today I thought these words about what an employer is looking for in a good employee written to the employee might be helpful as you choose a career for your characters.

A Man's Usefulness in this world, whether in a subordinate position or otherwise, is very generally measured by his ability to adapt himself to circumstances and to be serviceable in whatever capacity he is working, whether the conditions are such as he is accustomed to or are entirely new. To put it in a rough way, his usefulness is measured by his ability to "catch on" The man who is content to seemingly perform the duties assigned him seldom excels in usefulness. On the other band, the man who actually performs all that is allotted to him. and who studies to increase his usefulness by doing certain other things that fall in his way, and which are necessary to be done by some one, even though they do not belong to him, very rapidly increases his measure of usefulness. It is hard to define the difference between a thoroughly useful helper and one who pretends to be useful and actually falls short, except only by the results of a period of trial. The one who pretends is very often so obtrusive in his methods as to came a false impression to prevail concerning his usefulness, and on the other hand, the modest young man whospends his time and strength in doing things instead of talking about them, sometimes fails of recognition because of the very quietness of his ways.

Every Business Man wants helpers who are actually useful. He wants men about him who really perform, not those who sperd their strength in talking about their performances. He requires the assistance of these who are ever alert to save bim work, ratter than the lip service of those who are perfectly .willing to neglect their duties whenever they fee the opportunity without committing an actual breach of contract, even though their shortcomings increase the cares of the principal in small things. Every business man and every manager of a department has enough of higher duties to perform to warrant every small responsibility being carried by a subordinate, and that, too, in a way to save constant watching and plodding, and yet ninety-nine out of every hundred managers, if they talk freely, will say that the things which wear them out in business are the neglected small duties of their assistants. Tbey will tell you that tbey are ever on the alert for fear something which belongs to some one else to perform will be lift undone, or else they are tired out by doing little things which their subordinates, by rights, should perform without their thought or supervision.

The Successful Business Man, and the leader in any enterprise, possesses the ability to do things, day by day, which he never did before, and to learn new trades from time to time, as made necessary by the shifting conditions by which he is surrounded, yet when it comes to the rank and file of his subordinates and assistants he will frequently encounter the assertion," I can't do that" (some new duty), "for I never learned it." Asa rule, the man who utters these words could not do so, meaning what be says, save only with a fair comprehension < f the requirements of the case in his mind. But to see the need of a thing, with the progressive man, is learning to do it. For the inefficient or unprogressive n an to see the need is, on the other hand, only an excuse for declaring that he never learned how to do it, and does not propose to try to learn now. It would be waste of space to present thoughts such as these for the consideration of the reader were it not for the facts, first, that every man is ambitious to succeed ; and, second, that in many cases those who do not succeed owe their failure very largely to standing in their own light in just such ways as above suggested. Source: The Office ©1891 (Not to be confused with the modern tv show.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Filing Systems

Below are a couple of examples of various filing systems for different types of businesses. If your historical characters work in an office or a newspaper this information might be helpful.

Mr. Haskins, in charge of the mail-order department of Wm. Wrigley, Jr., 8.: Co., Chicago, outlines this firm’s methods as follows :
“The inquiries are entered upon blue cards, containin the name, address and source; then we are able at any time to determine by this system what mediums are producing the best results, and can spend our money most advantageously. In replying to an original inquiry, we send one of our catalogues, together with an accompanying letter. All orders are entered subsequently upon this card, so that after the receipt of a letter the card system becomes the sole source of information and the letters are gradually discarded. We make it an object to have each of our customers send us the names of neighbors and friends, and names obtained from other sources than those coming from direct advertising are entered upon white cards. We arrange our cards alphabetically under States, towns and names within each town.
“ In regard to this card system, we wish to Sat that we think it is one of the. greatest things ever gotten up. We are annually saving hundreds of dollars by discarding from our lists duplicate names which are automatically detected by the card system, and which would result in the loss of catalogues, postage and time if an other method were emplo ed. We can handle one hundred thousan dollars’ worth of business with the card system with as much ease, accuracy and attention to details as we can one hundred dollars’ worth. and think we get three times the result from the same effort and same amount of correspondence and advertising that we could without the system.”

Mr. C. A. Bent, of Geo. P. Bent Piano Manufacturing Co., Chicago, has the following to say about methods and filing systems :
“ We use the card system and numeric expansive filing system for tabulating and rendering effective all information about prospective customers and inquirers. \Ve have rimarily a county file, in which are placed all etters relative to prospective sales arranged by counties, so if our traveling man is going through a certain district of the country, he can run through this file and regulate his visits and conduct by the matter which it contains. As soon as one of these prospectives becomes a customer, the letter receives a number, and becomes an integral part of our numeric system, finding its place in numeric order under the State in the larger series of cabinets. Regarding the adaptability of this filing system by numbers, we have found it most satisfactory— we can not speak in high enough terms of it. \Ve find it adequate for all demands, and we have a very heavy correspondence. The capacity of our system is about two hundred thousand letters. We use the card system, keeping all correspondence with our customers and accounts in our ledgers, by the same number, found in the card index.”
A large Chicago concern which deals with advertisers throws the following light on its methods and office system :
“ Our territory is systematically divided, and a portion assigned to each of our solicitors, who is made responsible for his field. The inquiries, as they are received, are tabulated in a card system operated numerically in connection with an expansive filing system. This method we have employed for about two years. At that time we discarded making copies of our correspondence in the old method,and adopted the idea of making carbon copies of our letters, which enables us to file the letter and answer in one compartment. \Ve consider that this manner of handling our corresprmdence is as great an improvement in this office as is the emplo ment of typewriting machines over the o (1 method of writing letters. The Correspond
ence in this cabinet and the tabulated record of inquiries in the card system work in harmony, and are arranged both by territory and under the date in which they should receive attention. Thus, an inquiry is first tabulated on the card system, then the correspondence is arranged in the expansive file, and subsequent letters are so placed that our solicitors are kept informed at all times of our operations with each customer, and are enabled by this excellent method to interview the advertiser at just the right time to secure the best results.”
Source: Marketing Communications ©1898

Record-Filing—The Vertical System
By a record-filing system is meant the indexing of papers or other records (not necessarily letters but frequently so) that do not have to be transcribed but may be filed away in the original form.
The vertical system is the one most generally used in filing correspondence.
As business letters come in various sizes, forms, and thicknesses of letter paper, with not a few postal cards scattered in, it is necessary to have a means of conveniently holding and handling them. For accomplishing this purpose the folder is employed. A folder is a sheet of heavy manila paper made with one fold and measuring when folded about 12" wide by 9J" high. A folder of this kind holds from 50 to 100 letters, depending on the thickness of the sheets, etc. The back sheet and front sheet of the folders are nearly equal in height, though the back sheet should project slightly above the front sheet for convenience in handling.
One of the best forms of folders now used is that termed "half cut" in lefts and rights. This tab is printed with the words "Name" and "Number," as a folder generally is devoted to a certain firm or individual, and this space provides for entering the name thereon. On the second line of the tab may be written the date of the oldest letter and the date of the latest when the folder has become filled.
When folders are placed in the vertical file-drawer they are just high enough to allow the extension on the guides to project above them. As with the card-system so with the vertical system, the folders must always be filed behind (not in front) the guides. There is no limit to the number of folders which may be filed behind a single guide. Separate folders may be assigned to different firms and individuals or to different towns if the filing is by location instead of alphabetically.
Source: Style-Book of Business English, designed for use in Business Courses ©1811

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Across the Moorland

I thought I'd depart from Historical Fashion Wednesdays today and share this piece I stumbled across. It's a passage from a 19th century text that has interesting language. I find it helpful to get a sense of how our characters speak. I hope you enjoy!

Across the Moorland
AFTER a wild, boisterous night, the wind subsided somewhat, and although the barometer was still very low, I decided to make a start on my dreary drive of eight miles across the moorland. We were going to shoot through a few small scattered coverts on the fringe of the heather, and the bag, if not large, was likely to be varied, there being a probability of killing, or at least getting a few shots at, two or three couple of woodcock.
The hills at the head of the dale were shrouded in mist, and on the western horizon were banks of dark and threatening rainclouds. The air, too, was raw and chilly, and as we left the cultivated valley a keen wind came sweeping off the moorland.
The cattle in the pastures were huddled together under the walls, and on the lower allotments the sheep also were flocked together under the brow of the hill. These things, to a moorland resident, portended a storm, and when, further on, we met one of the dalesmen bringing a starved-looking mare and her foal down to the farm, our hopes for a fine day fell to zero. The road here for several miles is bounded on each side by the dry stone walls peculiar to this district. On one side the wide open moors stretched away for miles, whilst on the other were big allotments covered with ling, patches of bracken, and rough tussocky grass, with here and there stunted thorn trees, on the berries of which in severe weather the grouse are to be seen greedily feeding.
Grouse on these moors are numerous, and as we drove along they constantly rose from the heather on either side of the road, some to wing their way across the flat to the hills in the distance, others to pitch on the top of the wall, where with outstretched necks they would sit until the trap approached within gunshot; the old cocks, in the full beauty of their winter plumage, with a bit of brilliant scarlet colouring about
the head, frequently rising almost perpendicularly in the air, and then pitching a few hundred yards away in the long heather. Still the rain kept off, although the keen breeze increased until it became half a gale. On leaving the wall-bounded road for the open moorland, we appeared to be driving into the clouds of rain that were wind-driven across the face of the distant hills. Surrounded here on all sides by heather-clad moorland, we had left all signs of civilisation behind us, and the rain-sodden roads, bounded only by the wet ling, with here and there pools of dark peat-water, or a brown-tinted rushing mountain beck, were dreary and desolate in the extreme. No sign of life except the grouse, which ever and anon crossed before us, flying fearlessly over the line of empty butts that here run parallel to the road, and beside which lay piles of many-coloured empty cartridge shells. The patches of burnt heather were tinged with grey, due to a lichenlike growth which had sprung up to cover the earth; the tall rushes were bending beneath the strong wind which raised mimic waves on a tiny moorland loch, and the " bent " grass and russet bracken only intensified the dull brown tints of the never-ending stretches of heather. Once, for a few minutes, the sun gleamed through the masses of dark clouds, lighting up in flame-like lines the brows of the nearer hills, and sparkling on the rain-spangled heather. Then, as we crossed the shoulder of a projecting hill, 'he valley appeared at our feet, with the grey moorland village nestling beside the winding river at its foot. Crossing a tiny stream by a stone bridge, unprotected on either side, we soon reach our destination in the sheltered dale, and, after a brief "ifer-val, make a move towards the nearest covert—a small square Plantation of spruce and larch, with a plenteous undergrowth of rough grass and dead bracken, interspersed with a few holly bushes and tangled masses of brambles. We are only a small party of three guns and five beaters, together with a brace of hard-working Sussex spaniels, the best of all spaniels for general work.
Taking up our positions, we soon hear the tap, tap of the beaters, and then a shout of " Mark cock," quickly followed by a couple of reports from the outside gun. The spaniels give tongue, now approaching us, then turning back towards the beaters, and as they once more come towards us a rabbit is seen for an instant as he crosses an open space; the shot that follows is evidently successful, as the music of the spaniels ceases, and soon one appears with the rabbit in his mouth. A cock pheasant comes rocketing over, and is neatly stopped.
Source: Country Life ©1898

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Cookie Anyone

For the sweet tooth of your historical characters here are some cookie recipes:

Half a pound of butter, one pound of sugar, six eggs, one teaspoonful of powdered hartshorn, two pounds of flour. Mix butter and eggs to a cream. Add eggs two at a time. Dissolve the hartshorn in a little milk, and add to the mixture. Add flour, and mix well. Roll, then bake in hot oven.
Four ounces of butter, twelve ounces of sugar, two eggs, half a pint of milk, one teaspoonful of hartshorn, two pounds of flour. Mix butter and sugar well together. Add eggs, then the milk with hartshorn dissolved in it. Then add flour. Mix as little as possible. Too much mixing will make this dough tough. Roll fairly thin, and bake in hot oven.
Source: Green's Receipt Book ©1894

Rub to a cream three-quarters of a cup of butter and one cup of sugar; add four eggs, one at a time, and the grated peel of a lemon. Then dissolve a lump of ammonia, about the size of a bean, in a quarter of a pound of lukewarm milk ; add this and just enough sifted flour to enable you to roll out on the baking-board. Roll quite thin. Beat up an egg and brush over the cookies, sprinkle with sugar, cinnamon and pounded almonds. These are very nice. Be careful not to add too much flour. Omit the almonds if you are not fond of them.‘
Take one cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup of milk, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, three to five eggs and two teaspoonfuls of caraway seed. Flour enough to roll. Don’t get it too stiff.
Take two cups gf butter, two of sugar, one of milk; quarter of apound of almonds, five cents’ worth of oil of cloves; flour enough to roll and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
Take one cupful of sugar, two of molasses, one of butter; one teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a cup of boiling water; one tablespoonful of ginger, and flour enough to mix, and roll out soft.
Take one cupful of butter, one of sugar, two ' or three eggs, and two-thirds of a cupful of sour milk. Dissolve a teaspoonful of soda in a little hot water; add part of it at a time to the milk until it foams as you stir it. Be careful not to get in too much. Mix up soft, only using flour suflicient to roll out thin. A teaspoonful of cardamom seed may be sprinkled into the
Take one-half cup of butter and one cup and a half of sugar, and rub to a cream. Add two eggs, three-quarters of a‘ cup of milk, one—half cup of citron, cut up very fine, one teaspoonful of allspice and one of cloves. Take whole spices and pound them in a mortar, and flour to thicken. Make stiffer than ordinary cup cake dough; flavor to suit'taste, and drop on large tins with a teaspoon. Grease the pans, and bake in a quick oven. The best plan is to try one on a plate. If the dough runs too much add _more flour._ Sift one heaping teaspoonful of baking powder in with the flour.
Beat the whites of two eggs to a stiff froth, adding gradually one cup of confectioner’s sugar and one heaping cupful of dessicated cocoanut, and two heaping teaspoonfuls of arrowroot. Drop from the teaspoon upon buttered paper in a large baking pan. Drop an inch apart. Bake in a moderate oven fifteen minutes.
(No. 1.) Rub to a cream half a pound of best butter and add half a pound of pulverized sugar, the grated peel of a lemon, a tablespoonful of brandy, and the grated yelks of six hardboiled eggs, a teaspoonful of cardamom seed pounded fine, a tablespoonful of rosewater, and as much pulverized ammonia as you can put on the end of a knife. Work this into a soft dough, with just enough flour to roll out. Don’t get your dough too stiff, flour your board thickly and roll out thin. Spread with the beaten whites of the eggs and pounded almonds. Bake in a quick oven for about ten minutes. Prepare the eggs same as for “ Mother’s Delicious Cookies,” by breaking each egg carefully, putting the whites in a deep bowl and setting on ice until wanted, and put each yelk into a half shell (do this as you break each egg,’ leaving the ‘yelk in the same egg shell) and set in boiling water and boil until hard, then take them out and set in a cool place, and do not attempt to grate them until perfectly cold. It would be much easier to boil the whole egg, but then you would waste
the whites.
(No. 2.) Boil six eggs hard. When cold shell and grate the yelks (reserve the whites for salads or to garnish vegetables), add half a pound of sugar, the grated peel of a lemon and half a wineglassful of brandy. Stir in half a pound of butter which has been worked to a cream (unless your butter is sweet you had better wash it
through several waters before rubbing it). Sift‘
in as much flour as you think will allow you to roll out the dough; take as little as possible, a little over half a pound, and flour the board very thick. Put in about two cents’ worth of cardamom seed and very little rosewater. Cut out with a fancy cake cutter and brush with beaten egg. Sprinkle pounded almonds‘ and sugar on top. If you add half a teaspoonful of pulverized ammonia it will .make the cookies very light. It should .be ‘sifted with the flour.
Take one pound of flour, one pound of sugar, seven eggs, the grated peel of a lemon, a piece of citron, also grated, a tablespoonful of ground cinnamon, a teaspoonful of cardamom ‘seed, pounded fine, and half a teaspoonful of ground cloves. Stir the eggs, sugar and spices about half an hour, add the sifted flour gradually; cut the wafers with a teaspoon and bake in pans upon buttered or waxed paper,
Take one-quarter of a pound of the best vanilla chocolate, grated, one-quarter of a pound of confectioner’s sugar, one-quarter of a pound of grated almonds (a few bitter ones mixed), and the stifi'-beaten whites of six eggs. Stir the sugar and beaten whites, then add the chocolate and almonds, and drop upon waxed paper with a teaspoon, about two inches apart.
Source: Aunt Babett's Cook Book ©1889